Victor Hugo (1802 – 1885)
David d’Anger’s first major projects were to produce the ornamental carvings on the Arc de Triomphe and the Musée du Louvre’s façade. He became one of the best-known sculptors of his day, creating both busts and commemorative medals of contemporary celebrities. Portrait medals, which were based on the format of ancient coins, first became popular during the Renaissance. In the nineteenth century the new science of phrenology—the study of the shape of the head in order to determine an individual’s personality—helped to popularize the portrait medallion.